Certainly: there are all sorts of courses related to meteorology and climatology. You can go to college and become a meteorologist, if you want, or attend seminars, lessons, etc. If you want to become a licensed ship owner / captain or a private pilot, you will indeed learn about meteorology as well.
So, perhaps the best way to learn a bit about the topic if you are interested in attending some sort of course, is to ask someone at your local meteorological office, thorough their website. Be forewarned: while the principles of weather dynamics are exceedingly simple, in practice, weather sciences can become very complicated
and the biggest computing power in the world is used indeed, to make our daily forecasts. A lot of math and statistical calculations are involved.
You will also find some articles and comments on meteorology, climatology and weather forecasting here