The Skowronek Bankers - Sources and References

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This page contains all the sources and references for the history of the Skowronek bankers and related articles.

In those cases where hyperlinks appear, you should click to see the sources in question. Genealogical trees published online might require a subscription to the site in question for access. For correct interpretation of these sources and the family tree at large, please read this.


1. The Skowronek Bankers (might require a subscription) and also see here for details on individuals.

2. See List of governors of Portuguese India.

3. See House of Aviz.

4. See Henry the Navigator.

5. See August Belmont.

6. See Warszawa. Ulica Wierzbowa noca;. Widoczne kino "Corso" i Dom Bankowy "Józef Skowronek"..

7. See Skowronek (horse).

8. See The Rashi Descent.

9. See Davidic line.

10. See Lopo Vaz de Sampaio, governador da Índia.

11. See Rothschild family.

12. See Royal intermarriage.

13. See Nathaniel Anselm von Rothschild.

14. See Brisk tradition and Soloveitchik dynasty.

15. See Diogo de Sampaio.

16. See Meir von Rothenburg.

17. See Vilna Gaon.

18. See Davidic Dynasty - What the Experts Say

19. See Are You a Descendant of King David? A Look at Rabbinic Sources.

20. See The Oldest Jewish Dynasty: A 3400-Year Line of Descendants.

21. See The fascinating story of how DNA studies confirm an ancient biblical tradition.

22. See Tracing the Kohanim.

23. See The Cohen-Levi Family Heritage.

24. See The Belmont - Belmonte Family (PDF), Richard J.H. Gottheil, Columbia University, New York, 1917. See also The Skowronek Bankers - Sources and References - Gottheil for more details and sub items.

25. See Akiwa Eger.

26. See Dom Iago de Sampayo y Belmonte.

27. See August Belmont.

28. See Kronenberg family.

29. See Rognvald Eysteinsson.

30. See Gunnora, Duchess of Normandy.

31. See Simcha Bunim Alter.

32. See Potocki family.

33. See Judith Blunt-Lytton, 16th Baroness Wentworth.

34. See Walter Winans.

35. See Crabbet Arabian Stud.

36. See Antoni Protazy Potocki.

37. See Schoenberg Genealogy - Discussion about the Origin and Meaning of the Jewish Surnames - Finding relatives in Argentina.

38. See Walenti Potocki.

39. The Unbroken Chain: Biographical Sketches and Genealogy of Illustrious Jewish Families from the 15th-20th Century, Volume 1 & 2 , Neil Rosenstein, ISBN-10 096105784X, ISBN-13 978-0961057848.

40. See The Protocols of the Elders of Zion.

41. See Pyotr Rachkovsky.

42. See File:1912ed TheProtocols by Nilus.jpg - Public domain.

43. See Okhrana.

44. See Oprichnik.

45. See Contemporary imprints of The Protocols of the Elders of Zion.

46. See Raphael, Frederick Melchior.

47. See Raphael, Henry Lewis.

48. See South Lancashire Regiment (Prince of Wales's Volunteers) - At, written by David Biggins.

49. See File:British casualties, Spionkop, 1900.jpg.

50. See Lancashire Fusiliers.

51. See List of biases in judgment and decision making.

- 51.1 See Ostrich Effect - "In behavioral finance, the ostrich effect is the avoidance of apparently risky financial situations by pretending they do not exist. The name comes from the common (but false) legend that ostriches bury their heads in the sand to avoid danger. Galai and Sade (2006) explain differences in returns in the fixed income market by using a psychological explanation, which they name the 'ostrich effect,' attributing this anomalous behavior to an aversion to receiving information on potential interim losses. They also provide evidence that the entrance to a leading financial portal in Israel is positively related to the equity market. Later, research by George Loewenstein and Duane Seppi determined that people in Scandinavia looked up the value of their investments 50% to 80% less often during bad markets", ret 18 Dec 2012.

- 51.2 See Dunning – Kruger effect - "The Dunning–Kruger effect is a cognitive bias in which unskilled individuals suffer from illusory superiority, mistakenly rating their ability much higher than average. This bias is attributed to a metacognitive inability of the unskilled to recognize their mistakes," ret 18 Dec 2012.

52. See File:1934 Protocols Patriotic Pub.jpg.

53. See Sir John Retcliffe / Herrmann Ottomar Friedrich Goedsche.

54. See File:Autriche, Juifs Polonais.jpg.

55. See File:Mendelssohn, Lessing, Lavater.jpg.

56. See Schönberg (Adelsgeschlecht).

- 56.1 See Abraham von Schönberg.

- 56.2 See Caspar von Schönberg - "1573 setzte er sich als Gesandter in Deutschland für die Wahl des Prinzen von Anjou zum polnischen König ein und überzeugte sowohl den misstrauischen Johann Casimir von der Pfalz als auch Wilhelm von Hessen, nur Sachsen ließ sich nicht beschwatzen. Hier agitierte nämlich Hubert Languet für seinen Kandidaten, den Erzherzog Ernst. Die polnische Königin-Witwe Sophia schenkte Schönberg eine Prämie von 1.000 Talern. Der entsandte seinen Bruder Hans Wolf nach Dänemark, um den Durchgang von 4.000 Hakenschützen aus Frankreich nach Polen genehmigen zu lassen." - Ret. from Wikipedia on 17 Dec 2012.

- 57 See Death by burning - "If the fire was large (for instance, when a number of prisoners were executed at the same time), death often came from carbon monoxide poisoning before flames actually caused harm to the body. If the fire was small, however, the convict would burn for some time until death from heatstroke, shock, the loss of blood and/or simply the thermal decomposition of vital body parts. When this method of execution was applied with skill, the condemned's body would burn progressively in the following sequence: calves, thighs and hands, torso and forearms, breasts, upper chest, face; and then finally death. On other occasions, people died from suffocation with only their calves on fire. Several records report that victims took over two hours to die. In many burnings a rope was attached to the convicts' neck passing through a ring on the stake and they were simultaneously strangled and burnt." - Ret. from Wikipedia on 17 Dec 2012.

57. See File:Avvakum by Myasoyedov.jpeg.

58. See File:Cohanim DNA migration.jpg.

59. See File:Cohanim haplotype tree.jpg.

59. See Y-chromosomal Aaron.

60. See Joseph Süß Oppenheimer - Ret. from Wikipedia on 18 Dec 2012.

61. See File:Joseph Süß Oppenheimer.jpg.

62. See File:Hinrichtung Joseph Süss 2.jpg - The execution of Joseph Süß Oppenheimer on February 4th, 1738 in front of the Stuttgart city gates, ret. from Wikipedia on 18 Dec 2012.

63. See The Jewish Encyclopaedia.

- 63.1 BELMONT - "There is little doubt that the Belmont family of Alzey is descended from the Belmontes of Amsterdam. Probably some member of the latter family wandered either from Amsterdam or from Hamburg down the Rhine, ultimately settling in Alzey; and when the Jews were forced by the government to take family names, his descendants revived the name which by tradition they knew to have belonged to their family.".

- 63.2 ALZEY - "It is only toward the close of the seventeenth century that Jews again appear in Alzey as a regular congregation. Until the year 1791, religious services were held in private houses. The first synagogue was built in that year through the liberality of Elias Simon Belmont. A census in 1722 enumerated nine families in the congregation, and sixty-three families in the whole district. Twenty years later there were only eleven in the congregation. In 1748 the elector Karl Theodor set the legal limit of families in the town of Alzey at three. He added, that "since there were already more than that number, no additional families would be allowed to settle there until the number had been diminished by death to less than three." From the end of the eighteenth century the congregation grew steadily; in the fourth decade of the nineteenth century about fifty families are found, and there are now (1901) seventy-five. Of the 6,500 inhabitants of Alzey, about 320 are Jews, who devote themselves mainly to mercantile pursuits. The present synagogue was consecrated in the year 1854. The first rabbi (in this new building) was Dr. Samuel Adler, son of Isaac Adler, rabbi of Worms. By ministerial decree of August 17, 1842, he was appointed district-rabbi of Alzey, which post he held until the year 1856. He was called to the Temple Emanu-El in New York in 1857. His successor was Dr. David Rothschild, who officiated for nearly thirty years (from 1862 till June, 1891); he died January, 1892, in Aix-la-Chapelle. Since October, 1891, Dr. Joseph Levy has been the rabbi of this congregation.

Mention must be made of several members of the Belmont family, one of the oldest and most respected of the congregation. According to the Alzey "Memorial-Book," SimH"ah, son of Ephraim Belmont, was the first of that name to settle in Alzey; he had been head of the Jewish community in Beckelheim, near Kreuznach, which then belonged to the Palatinate. His son Joseph Jessel, called Rabbi Jessel of Alzey, held the same position in the Alzey district; he died in 1738. These men as well as their descendants were conspicuous for their piety and for their uncommon public spirit. The Elias Simon Belmont already mentioned and his nephew Simon founded the so-called "Belmont fund," which provides a marriage-portion for poor girls.".

- 63.3 SEPHARDIM (called also Spagnioli, Spaniols, or, more rarely, Franconians) - "The Sephardim never engaged in chaffering occupations nor in usury, and they did not mingle with the lower classes. With their social equals they associated freely, without regard to creed, and in the presence of their superiors they displayed neither shyness nor servility. They were received at the courts of sultans, kings, and princes, and often were employed as ambassadors, envoys, or agents. The number of Sephardim who have rendered important services to different countries is considerable, from Samuel Abravanel (financial counselor to the viceroy of Naples) to Benjamin Disraeli. Among other names mentioned are those of Belmonte, Nasi, Pacheco, Palache, Azevedo, Sasportas, Costa, Curiel, Cansino, Schonenberg, Toledo, Toledano, and Teixeira."

- 63.4 SEPHARDIM (called also Spagnioli, Spaniols, or, more rarely, Franconians).

- 63.5 SEPHARDIM (called also Spagnioli, Spaniols, or, more rarely, Franconians) - "For a long time the Sephardim took active part in Spanish literature; they wrote in prose and in rime, and were the authors of theological, philosophical, belletristic, pedagogic, and mathematical works. The rabbis, who, in common with all the Sephardim, laid great stress on a pure and euphonious pronunciation of Hebrew, delivered their sermons in Spanish or in Portuguese: several of these sermons appeared in print. Their thirst for knowledge, together with the fact that they associated freely with the outer world, led the Sephardim to establish new educational systems wherever they settled; they founded schools in which the Spanish language was the medium of instruction."

- 63.6 SEPHARDIM (called also Spagnioli, Spaniols, or, more rarely, Franconians) - "In Amsterdam, where they were especially prominent in the seventeenth century on account of their number, wealth, education, and influence, they established poetical academies after Spanish models; two of these were the Academia de los Sitibundos and the Academia de los Floridos. In the same city also they organized the first Jewish educational institution, with graduated classes in which, in addition to Talmudic studies, instruction was given in the Hebrew language... Although the Sephardim live as loyal citizens in the various countries of their adoption, among themselves they still mainly employ the Spanish language, and in their correspondence they use the Spanish cursive script. They bear exclusively Spanish given names, as Aleqria, Angel, Angela, Amado, Amada, Bienvenida, Blanco, Cara, Cimfa, Comprado, Consuela, Dolza, Esperanza, Estimada, Estrella, Fermosa, Gracia, Luna, Niña, Palomba, Preciosa, Sol, Ventura, and Zafiro; and such Spanish surnames as Belmonte, Benveniste, Bueno, Calderon, Campos, Cardoso, Castro, Curiel, Delgado, Fonseca, Cordova, Leon, Lima, Mercado, Monzon, Rocamora, Pacheco, Pardo, Pereira, Pinto, Prado, Sousa, Suasso, Toledano, Tarragona, Valencia, and Zaporta.

- 63.7 INQUISITION (called also Sanctum Officium or Holy Office) - "Court for the punishment of heretics and infidels, established as early as the reigns of the emperors Theodosius and Justinian, though not under that name. Little was heard of this institution until the beginning of the thirteenth century, when, in consequence of the spread of the heretical sect of the Albigenses, it was established in various cities of southern France. Its management was then given into the hands of the Dominicans and Franciscans, of the mendicant orders of friars, who, being severed from all worldly ties, were sure to show themselves pitiless in the persecution of heretics and infidels.

Although the Sephardim lived on peaceful terms with other Jews, they rarely intermarried with them; neither did they unite with them in forming congregations, but adhered to their own ritual, which differed widely from the Ashkenazic."

- 63.8 AUERBACH - "A family of scholars, the progenitor of which was Moses Auerbach, court Jew to the bishop of Regensburg, about 1497. One of his daughters, who went after her marriage to Cracow, is the reputed ancestress of the celebrated R. Moses Isserles"

- 63.9 ADLER - "A family that came originally from Frankfort, but which has been connected for more than a century with the chief rabbinate of England. Tebele Schiff, who was chief rabbi of London, was, it is true, only connected by marriage with Baer Adler, the two having married sisters. But there is little doubt that the family associations thus created with England had something to do with the candidature of N. M. Adler for the chief rabbinate of England in 1844. Though a Frankfort family-and thus related, directly or indirectly, with the Worms and Rothschilds-they have been, this century, more closely connected with Hanover, especially while it was under British sovereignty-another point of connection with England. The name has been derived from the eagle on the sign-board in the Frankfort ghetto, or from the outstretched hands in the priest's blessing, resembling the wings of an eagle, the Adlers being of priestly stock."

- 63.10 JAFFE (JOFFE) - "Family of rabbis, scholars, and communal workers, with members in Germany, Austria, Russia, Great Britain, Italy, and the United States. It traces its descent from Mordecai Jaffe (1530-1612), author of the "Lebushim," and his uncle Moses Jaffe, both descendants of an old family of Prague..."

64. See Archivo:Rembrandt Harmensz. van Rijn 042.jpg - Ret 19 Dic 2012.

65. See Marranos - "La novia judía, de Rembrandt. Aunque la identidad de los retratados no ha sido establecida con certeza, una de las posibilidades es que represente a Miguel de Barrios y su segunda esposa, Abigail de Pina". Ret 19 Dic 2012.

66. See File:Juan de Miranda Carreno 002.jpg - A painting of Carlos II of Spain by Juan de Miranda Carreño. Ret 24 Dic 2012.

67. See File:Louis XIV of France.jpg - In 1701 Louis XIV commissioned from Hyacinthe Rigaud a copy of the portrait. This portrait, Louis XIV (oil on canvas; 2.05 x 1.52 m), is on display in the Apollo Salon of the Château de Versailles' Grand Apartment. Ret 24 Dic 2012.

68. See File:Portugallia et Algarbia.jpg - Fernando Álvaro Amsterdam, 1647 Buril e aquarela sobre papel 38,5 x 50,2 cm. Ret 24 Dic 2012.

69. See Archivo:Spanish Galleon.jpg - Engraving, possibly by Albrecht Dürer. Ret 25 Dic 2012.

70. See Archivo:Mauritius - Detail uit Het uitzeilen van een aantal Oost-Indiëvaarders van Hendrick Cornelisz Vroom (1600).jpg - Mauritius. Fragment from Het uitzeilen van een aantal Oost-Indiëvaarders. Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam. Ret 25 Dic 2012.

71. See File:Holbein - Ausfahrendes Schiff.png - Hans Holbein the Younger, Ship with Revelling Sailors. Ret 28 Dic 2012.

72. See Alhambra Decree - "The Alhambra Decree (also known as the Edict of Expulsion) was an edict issued on 31 March 1492 by the joint Catholic Monarchs of Spain (Isabella I of Castile and Ferdinand II of Aragon) ordering the expulsion of Jews from the Kingdoms of Castile and Aragon (not from the Kingdom of Navarre) and its territories and possessions by 31 July of that year. The edict was formally revoked on 16 December 1968, following the Second Vatican Council. Today, the number of Jews in Spain is estimated at 50,000." Ret 29 Dec, 2012.

73. See File:Alhambra Decree.jpg - Copy of the Spanish edict of expulsion. Public domain. Ret 29 Dec 2012.

74. See File:Golem Weneger 2.jpg - Zdje;cie z filmu "Der Golem" (1915). Public domain. Ret 29 Dec 2012.

75. See Judeus em Portugal - Ret 31 Dec 2012.

- 75.1 "A conquista da Lusitania pelo Império Romano e a posterior destruição de Jerusalém em 70 d.C., que obrigou os judeus a se dispersarem pelo mundo ("Diáspora judaica"), fez com que um grande contingente de hebreus buscassem um novo lar na Península Ibérica (ou para ali fossem deportados, como ocorreu no tempo do imperador Adriano). Embora não se saiba exatamente quando se iniciou tal movimento migratório, a presença de judeus no território que futuramente constituiria Portugal pode ser comprovada a partir do século VI d.C., pela descoberta de inscrições funerárias na freguesia de Lagos da Beira."

- 75.1 "Com o advento do Cristianismo, leis discriminatórias contra os judeus começaram a ser aprovadas - primeiro, pelos romanos, e depois pelos bárbaros Visigodos que invadiram a península em 409 d.C. Entre outras coisas, foram proibidos os casamentos mistos entre judeus e cristãos e até mesmo instituída uma conversão forçada ao cristianismo (a qual não parece ter surtido grande efeito, visto que outras conversões em massa foram realizadas ao longo da História).

Em 711 d.C., tropas mouras invadem a Península Ibérica e derrotam os visigodos. Os mouros foram encarados como libertadores pelos judeus, uma visão até certo ponto correta, visto que cristãos, judeus e sabeus (uma categoria nebulosa que incluía os hindus, por exemplo), eram incluídos pelos muçulmanos no grupo dos "Povos do Livro" (Bíblia, Torá etc). Os indivíduos que professavam tais crenças podiam continuar a praticá-las sob domínio islâmico, desde que pagassem uma taxa (a jizya) aos governantes e respeitassem as leis islâmicas."

- 75.3 "Com a Reconquista da Península Ibérica pelos cristãos, os judeus passaram a temer novamente pela sua sorte. Todavia, pelo menos em Portugal até meados do século XV, eles gozaram de relativa liberdade, embora tivessem de pagar impostos escorchantes. Obtiveram mesmo grande destaque na vida pública portuguesa, como diplomatas, conselheiros reais, administradores, médicos, matemáticos, astrônomos, comerciantes e banqueiros (embora a maior parte da população judaica fosse composta de pessoas com profissões bem mais modestas, a saber, alfaiates, sapateiros, tecelões, pastores e pequenos comerciantes). Tal projeção começou a gerar descontentamento entre o povo, que sentia estar "a cristandade submetida à jurisdição judaica" (conforme queixou-se um frade em carta a Dom Afonso V). Tal clima de insatisfação generalizou-se e os judeus começaram a ser vítimas de perseguições e violência por parte de populares."

- 75.4 "Esse grande contingente de fugitivos sem bens e dinheiro acirrou os ânimos dos portugueses. Além da ira popular, os imigrantes tiveram de lidar com a esperteza de Dom João II, que vislumbrou uma oportunidade de lucrar com a desgraça alheia: o rei instituiu a cobrança de dois escudos por cada imigrante, para que pudessem permanecer em Portugal por oito meses. Como ao fim do prazo de permanência os judeus não conseguiram sair de Portugal (não havia navios suficientes para transporta-los - ou assim foi dito), o rei ordenou que fossem vendidos como escravos. As crianças entre dois e dez anos foram tiradas de seus pais, batizadas e levadas para colonizar as ilhas de São Tomé e Príncipe (onde ainda vivem seus descendentes, os quais, como prova de extrema resistência cultural, ainda conservam alguns costumes judaicos)."

- 75.5 "Com a ascensão de Dom Manuel I ao trono português, em 1495, os castelhanos escravizados foram libertados. Todavia, o casamento anunciado do rei com a princesa Isabel da Espanha colocou os judeus novamente em clima de tensão. Isto porque o contrato de casamento incluía uma cláusula que exigia a expulsão dos hereges (mouros e judeus) do território português. O rei tentou fazer com que a princesa reconsiderasse (já que precisava dos capitais e do conhecimento técnico dos judeus para o seu projeto de desenvolvimento de Portugal), mas foi tudo em vão. Em 5 de Dezembro de 1496, Dom Manuel assinou o decreto de expulsão dos hereges, concedendo-lhes prazo até 31 de Outubro de 1497 para que deixassem o país. Aos judeus, o rei permitiu que optassem pela conversão ou desterro, esperando assim que muitos se batizassem, ainda que apenas pro forma. Os judeus, no entanto, não se deixaram convencer e a grande maioria optou por abandonar o país. O rei, ao ver cair por terra sua estratégia, mandou fechar todos os portos de Portugal - menos o porto de Lisboa - para impedir a fuga."

- 75.6 "Foi então no porto de Lisboa que se concentraram cerca de 20 mil judeus, esperando transporte para abandonar o território português. Em abril de 1497, o rei manda seqüestrar as crianças judias menores de 14 anos, para serem criadas por famílias cristãs, o que foi feito com grande violência. Em outubro de 1497, os que ainda resistiam à conversão foram arrastados à pia batismal pelo povo incitado por clérigos fanáticos e com a complacência das forças da ordem.

Foi desses batismos em massa e à força que surgiram os marranos, ou cripto-judeus, que praticavam o judaísmo em segredo embora publicamente professassem a fé católica. Os "cristãos novos" nunca foram realmente bem aceitos pela população "cristã velha", que desconfiava da sinceridade da fé dos conversos. Essa desconfiança evoluiu para a violência explícita em 1506, quando ocorreu o Pogrom de Lisboa."

- 75.7 "A peste grassava na cidade desde janeiro, fazendo dezenas de vítimas por dia. Em abril, mais uma vez insuflados por clérigos fanáticos, que culpavam os "cristãos novos" pela calamidade, o populacho investiu contra eles, matando mais de dois mil deles, entre homens, mulheres e crianças."

76. See Massacre de Lisboa de 1506 - Ret 31 Dec 2012.

- 76.1 "Cerca de 93 mil judeus se refugiaram em Portugal nos anos que se seguiram à sua expulsão de Espanha em 1492 pelos reis católicos. D. Manuel I se mostrara mais tolerante com a comunidade judaica, mas, sob a pressão de Espanha, também em Portugal, a partir de 1497, os judeus foram forçados a converter-se para não serem mais humilhados e mortos em praças públicas."

- 76.2 "A historiografia situa o início da matança no Convento de São Domingos de Lisboa, no dia 19 de abril de 1506, um domingo, quando os fiéis rezavam pelo fim da seca e da peste que tomavam Portugal, e alguém jurou ter visto no altar o rosto de Cristo iluminado - fenômeno que, para os católicos presentes, só poderia ser interpretado como uma mensagem de misericórdia do Messias - um milagre.

Um cristão-novo que também participava da missa tentou explicar que esse milagre era apenas o reflexo de uma luz, mas foi calado pela multidão, que o espancou até a morte.

A partir daí, os judeus da cidade que anteriormente já eram vistos com desconfiança tornaram-se o bode expiatório da seca, da fome e da peste: três dias de massacre se sucederam, incitados por frades dominicanos que prometiam absolvição dos pecados dos últimos 100 dias para quem matasse os "hereges", e que juntaram uma turba de mais de quinhentas pessoas incluindo muitos marinheiros da Holanda, da Zelândia e de outras terras com as suas promessas."

- 76.3 "A corte encontrava-se em Abrantes - onde se instalara para fugir à peste - quando o massacre começou. D. Manuel I tinha-se posto a caminho de Beja, para visitar a mãe. Terá sido avisado dos acontecimentos em Avis, logo mandando magistrados para tentar pôr fim ao banho de sangue. Entretanto, mesmo as poucas autoridades presentes foram postas em causa e, em alguns casos, obrigadas a fugir."

- 76.4 "Os judeus foram acusados entre outros "males", de deicídio e de serem a causa da profunda seca e da peste que assolava o país. A matança durou três dias - de 19 a 21 de Abril, na Semana Santa de 1506 - e só acabou quando foi morto um cristão-novo (mas não judeu) que era escudeiro do rei, João Rodrigues Mascarenhas,que foi morto por engano por cidadãos exaltados, que acharam que ele era criptojudeu e as tropas reais finalmente chegaram para restaurar a ordem."

- 76.5 "D. Manuel I penalizou os envolvidos, confiscando-lhes os bens, e os dominicanos instigadores foram condenados à morte por enforcamento. Há também indícios de que o referido Convento de São Domingos (da Baixa) teria sido fechado durante oito anos e sabe-se que os representantes da cidade de Lisboa foram expulsos do Conselho da Coroa (equivalente ao actual Conselho de Estado), onde tinham assento desde 1385, quando o rei D. João I lhes concedeu esse privilegio pelo seu apoio à sua campanha pela conquista do Trono português."

- 76.6 "Mesmo expulsos da Península Ibérica, os judeus só podiam deixar Portugal mediante o pagamento de "resgate" à Coroa. No processo de emigração, os judeus abandonavam suas propriedades ou as vendiam por preços irrisórios e viajavam apenas com a bagagem que conseguissem carregar."

- 76.7 "No mosteiro de São Domingos existe uma capela, chamada de Jesus, e nela há um Crucifixo, em que foi então visto um sinal, a que deram foros de milagre, embora os que se encontravam na igreja julgassem o contrário. Destes, um Cristão-novo (julgou ver, somente), uma candeia acesa ao lado da imagem de Jesus. Ouvindo isto, alguns homens de baixa condição arrastaram-no pelos cabelos, para fora da igreja, e mataram-no e queimaram logo o corpo no Rossio.

Ao alvoroço acudiu muito povo a quem um frade dirigiu uma pregação incitando contra os Cristãos-novos, após o que saíram dois frades do mosteiro com um crucifixo nas mãos e gritando: 'Heresia! Heresia!' Isto impressionou grande multidão de gente estrangeira, marinheiros de naus vindos da Holanda, Zelândia, Alemanha e outras paragens. Juntos mais de quinhentos, começaram a matar os Cristãos-novos que encontravam pelas ruas, e os corpos, mortos ou meio-vivos, queimavam-nos em fogueiras que acendiam na ribeira (do Tejo) e no Rossio. Na tarefa ajudavam-nos escravos e moços portugueses que, com grande diligência, acarretavam lenha e outros materiais para acender o fogo. E, nesse Domingo de Pascoela, mataram mais de quinhentas pessoas.

A esta turba de maus homens e de frades que, sem temor de Deus, andavam pelas ruas concitando o povo a tamanha crueldade, juntaram-se mais de mil homens (de Lisboa) da qualidade (social)dos (marinheiros estrangeiros), os quais, na Segunda-feira, continuaram esta maldade com maior crueza. E, por já nas ruas não acharem Cristãos-novos, foram assaltar as casas onde viviam e arrastavam-nos para as ruas, com os filhos, mulheres e filhas, e lançavam-nos de mistura, vivos e mortos, nas fogueiras, sem piedade. E era tamanha a crueldade que até executavam os meninos e (as próprias) crianças de berço, fendendo-os em pedaços ou esborrachando-os de arremesso contra as paredes. E não esqueciam de lhes saquear as casas e de roubar todo o ouro, prata e enxovais que achavam. E chegou-se a tal dissolução que (até) das (próprias) igrejas arrancavam homens, mulheres, moços e moças inocentes, despegando-os dos Sacrários, e das imagens de Nosso Senhor, de Nossa Senhora e de outros santos, a que o medo da morte os havia abraçado, e dali os arrancavam, matando-os e queimando-os fanaticamente sem temor de Deus.

Nesta (Segunda-feira), pereceram mais de mil almas, sem que, na cidade, alguém ousasse resistir, pois havia nela pouca gente visto que por causa da peste, estavam fora os mais honrados. E se os alcaides e outras justiças queriam acudir a tamanho mal, achavam tanta resistência que eram forçados a recolher-se para lhes não acontecer o mesmo que aos Cristãos-novos.

Havia, entre os portugueses encarniçados neste tão feio e inumano negócio, alguns que, pelo ódio e malquerença a Cristãos, para se vingarem deles, davam a entender aos estrangeiros que eram Cristãos-novos, e nas ruas ou em suas (próprias) casas os iam assaltar e os maltratavam, sem que se pudesse pôr cobro a semelhante desventura.

Na Terça-feira, estes danados homens prosseguiram em sua maldade, mas não tanto como nos dias anteriores; já não achavam quem matar, pois todos os Cristãos-novos, escapados desta fúria, foram postos a salvo por pessoas honradas e piedosas, (contudo) sem poderem evitar que perecessem mais de mil e novecentas criaturas. Na tarde daquele dia, acudiram à cidade o Regedor Aires da Silva e o Governador Dom Álvaro de Castro, com a gente que puderam juntar, mas (tudo) já estava quase acabado. Deram a notícia a el-Rei, na vila de Avis, (o qual) logo enviou o Prior do Crato e Dom Diogo Lopo, Barão de Alvito, com poderes especiais para castigarem os culpados. Muitos deles foram presos e enforcados por justiça, principalmente os portugueses, porque os estrangeiros, com os roubos e despojo, acolheram-se às suas naus e seguiram nelas cada qual o seu destino. (Quanto) aos dois frades, que andaram com o Crucifixo pela cidade, tiraram-lhes as ordens e, por sentença, foram queimados."

77. See Ficheiro:Massacre de lisboa.jpg - Ret 31 Dec 2012.

78. See John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster.

79. See Marrano (judeoconverso) - Ret 31 Dec 2012.

- 79.1 "La palabra «marrano» procede del árabe muh.arram,2 ('cosa prohibida'), expresión usada para designar, entre otras muchas cosas, al cerdo, cuya carne está prohibida para judíos y musulmanes. La palabra se utilizó primero en el romance peninsular para designar a este animal (documentada desde 965). Para designar, de forma hiriente, a los cristianos nuevos está documentada en castellano desde comienzos del siglo XIII,5 seguramente porque estos conversos se abstenían de comer carne de cerdo. En 1691, por ejemplo, Francisco de Torrejoncillo en su libelo antisemita6 Centinela contra judios: puesta en la torre de la iglesia de Dios con el trabajo, escribía una descripción del término:

'Otro nombre que les davan antiguamente por afrenta, de mas de perros ó canes, que era llamarlos marranos, como lo dize Didarus á Velazquez. Pues qué razon avria para darles este nombre, llamando a los Judíos marranos? Muchas razones dan estos graves Autores [...] Otros dizen, que los Españoles les salió este nombre, llamandoles marranos, que en Español quiere decir puercos; y asi por infamia les llamaban puercos marranos a los Christianos nuevos, y dávanles, y se les puede dar este nombre con gran propiedad, porque entre los marranos, cuando gruñe, y se quexa uno de ellos, todos los demás puercos o marranos acuden a su gruñido; y como son assi los Judíos, que al lamento del vno acuden todos, por esso les dieron titulo, y nombre de marranos

Aunque en un principio el término se empleaba tanto para los conversos procedentes del judaísmo como del islam, con el tiempo a estos últimos se les denominó moriscos, y la voz «marrano» quedó para designar únicamente a los judeoconversos.'"

- 79.2 "Los judeoconversos que 'judaizaban', es decir, que practicaban secretamente la Ley judía o, al menos, una reconstrucción de los ritos y creencias del judaísmo (lo que, en los estudios socioreligiosos actuales se denomina cripto-judaísmo -literalmente 'judaísmo secreto'-), eran denominados 'judaizantes', y son los que más propiamente se identifican con los conceptos de 'marrano' y 'marranismo'. Sobre qué significaba 'judaizar' y las prácticas de los judaizantes existe abundante documentación en los procesos de la Inquisición española, aunque a veces es difícil deslindar qué testimonios corresponden a hechos reales y cuáles son acusaciones calumniosas producto de la imaginación y el antisemitismo."

80. See Belmonte (Portugal) - Ret 1 Jan 2013.

- 80.1 "Vários decidiram isolar-se do mundo exterior, cortando o contacto com o resto do país e seguindo suas tradições à risca. Tais pessoas foram chamadas de "marranos", numa alusão à proibição ritual de comer carne de porco. Durante séculos os marranos de Belmonte mantiveram as suas tradições judaicas quase intactas, tornando-se um caso excepcional de comunidade criptojudaica. Somente nos anos 70 a comunidade estabeleceu contacto com os judeus de Israel e oficializou o judaísmo como sua religião."

81. See Waldseemüller map - Ret 1 Jan 2013.

- 80.1 "The Waldseemüller map, Universalis Cosmographia, is a printed wall map of the world by German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller, originally published in April 1507. It is known as the first map to use the name "America". The map is drafted on a modification of Ptolemy's second projection, expanded to accommodate the Americas and the high latitudes"

- 80.2 "The Waldseemüller main map, and his globe gores of the same date, depict the American continents in two pieces. These depictions differ from the small inset map in the top border, which shows the two American continents joined by an isthmus. The name America is placed on what is now called South America on the main map, this being the first map known to use this name. As explained in Cosmographiae Introductio, the name was bestowed in honor of Amerigo Vespucci. The most southerly feature named on the coast of America on the Waldseemüller map is Rio decananorum, the 'River of the Cananoreans'. This was taken from Vespucci, who in 1501 during his voyage along this coast reached the port which he called Cananor (now Cananéia). Cananor was the port of Kannur in southern India, the farthest port reached in India during the 1500-1501 voyage of the Portuguese Pedro Álvares Cabral, the discoverer of Brazil, two of whose ships were encountered returning from India by Vespucci. This may be an indication Waldseemüller thought that the 'River of the Cananoreans' could have actually been in the territory of Cananor in India and that America was, therefore, part of India.

The name for the northern land mass, Parias, is derived from a passage in the Four Voyages of Amerigo Vespucci, in which, after several stops, the expedition arrives at a region that was “situated in the torrid zone directly under the parallel which describes the Tropic of Cancer. And this province is called by them [the inhabitants] Parias”.[8] Parias was described by Waldseemüller’s follower, Johannes Schöner as: “The island of Parias, which is not a part or portion of the foregoing [America] but a large, special part of the fourth part of the world”, indicating uncertainty as to its situation.

PARIAS and AMERICA, corresponding to North and South America, are separated by a strait in the region of the present Panama on the main map but on the miniature map inset into the upper-mid part of the main map the isthmus joining the two is unbroken, apparently demonstrating Waldseemüller's willingness to represent alternative solutions to a question yet unanswered."

- 80.3 File:Waldseemuller map closeup with America.jpg

81. See Henry the Navigator - Ret 2 Jan 2013.

82. See File:CantinoPlanisphere.png - "The most important manuscript map surviving from the early Age of Discovery, the Cantino World Map is named for Alberto Cantino, an Italian diplomatic agent in Lisbon who obtained it in 1502 for the Duke of Ferrara. It was covertly copied without authorization. It incorporates extensive new geographical information based on four series of voyages: Columbus to the Caribbean, Pedro Álvarez Cabral to Brazil, Vasco de Gama followed by Cabral to eastern Africa and India, and the brothers Corte-Real to Greenland and Newfoundland. Except for Columbus, all had sailed under the Portuguese flag." Ret 2 Jan 2013.

83. See Fernán Ruíz de Castro - Ret 3 Jan 2013.

- 83.1 "A linhagem dos Castro surgiu na vila de Castrojeriz (Burgos) e pertence, junto com os Lara ou os Guzmán, às cinco grandes famílias aparentadas com os primeiros reis de Castela. Um ramo da família passou a Galiza no século XII onde se aparentaram com as casas de Lemos e Sarria. Dominaram Galiza e estiveram presentes em feitos salientáveis da sua história, bem como na de Castela e Leão, destacando-se no auxílio prestado aos seus monarcas nas campanhas de conquista dos territórios muçulmanos. O declínio dos Trava permitiu que muito a modo fossem ocupando seu lugar proeminente.

84. See Armadas da Índia - Ret 3 Jan 2013.

- 84.1 "Armada de doze navios. Sucedendo este ano no Reino D. João II, filho de D. Afonso V, fez uma armada de 12 navios par fundar a Fortaleza da Mina, ou Rio de Ouro : continha 600 homens, os 500 de guerra : era capitão mór Diogo de Azambuja, e os outros Gonçalo da Fonseca, Rui de Oliveira, João Rodrigues Gante, João Afonso, João de Moura, Diogo Rodrigues, Bartolomeu Dias, Pedro de Évora, Gomes Aires, Pedro de Sintra, e Fernando Afonso. Fundou-se a Fortaleza com grande solenidade, e foi capitão dela o Azambuja três anos: o rei intitulou-se Senhor da Guiné." (sic)

- 84.2 "Armada de vinte navios. Capitão Mór de 20 navios Pedro Vaz da Cunha; dos outros ignoram-se os nomes ia para fundar a Fortaleza na ribeira di rio Zanagá, levaram consigo o principe Bemoi já cristão, a quem matou com impiedade. E voltou sem fazer mais que esta maldade."

- 84.3 "Dois navios 'eram de particulares, num investia o conde de Portalegre, no outro eram sócios D.Álvaro de Bragança, Bartolomeu Marchionni e Girolamo Sernigi.'

- 84.4 "D. Manuel I determina que todos os anos, entre Fevereiro e Março, saia uma armada de naus de carreira para a Índia. 15 de Março 'Armada de quatro naus, eram caravelas. Capitão mór João da Nova Alcaide de Lisboa, e os três Diogo Barbosa criado de D. Álvaro de Portugal [ D. Álvaro de Bragança ], Francisco de Novais, Fernando Vinete ou Vicente, Florentino. Descobriu o Nova à ida a Ilha da Conceição [sic](Ascensão); e à volta a de Santa Helena. Livro de Lisuarte de Abreu: João da Nova, Duarte Pacheco, Rui de Abreu, e Miçe Vicente. Livro das Armadas: por Duarte Pacheco vem Fernão Pacheco nome que é depois substituido por Diogo Barbosa. Por Fernando Vinete vem Misser Vineto, ou Fernam Vinet. Teresa Lacerda dá os nomes seguintes: João da Nova, Francisco Novais, Fernão Pacheco, e Misser Vinet, este ao "serviço de Bartolomeu Marchionni, um abastado comerciante florentino, instalado em Lisboa e que foi um dos grandes investidores da Carreira da Índia'"

- 84.5 "Capitão Mór Vicente Sodré [ nau Esmeralda ] irmão da mãe de Vasco da Gama, e os quatro Brás Sodré, irmão de Vicente, Álvaro de Ataíde, Fernão Rodrigues de Almada [ ou Fernão Rodrigues, Badarças, segundo Couto ], António Pires [ António Fernandes ]. Os dois Sodré se perderam em Curia Muria. [ três outras naus são a São Pedro, a Santa Marta, e a São Paulo ]

- 84.6 "Capitão-mor D. Francisco de Almeida, que ia por Vice-Rei da Índia, e foi o primeiro que teve esse título, ou cargo ; e os outros capitães, Sebastião de Sousa, Pêro Ferreira Fogaça, João da Nova, Antonio Gonçalves Leitão Alcaide de Cesimbra, Diogo Correia, Lopo Sanches, Dom Fernando de Eça ou D. Francisco d'Eça, Rui Freire [de Andrade], Vasco Gomes de Abreu, João Serrão, Lopo de Deus, Antão Gonçalves [ Capitão da nau São Cristóvão ], Bermudo Dias [ ou Alonso Bermudez ou Fernão Bermudez ] Castelhano, Fernão Soares, Gonçalo Vaz, ou Gil de Góis [ Gonçalo Vaz Góis ], Gonçalo de Paiva, ou Gonçalo de Pavia, Lucas da Fonseca, Lopo Chanoca, Antão Vaz. Perdeu-se o Fogaça na linha, salvando-se a fazenda, e alguma gente...Outro tripulante: Fernão de Magalhães."

- 84.7 "Capitão-mor Sebastião de Barbuda, ou Cid Barbosa [ ou Cid Barbudo ] e o outro Pêro Quaresma, que iam em busca de Francisco de Albuquerque e Pêro de Mendonça, que desapareceram entre Sofala e o Cabo da Boa Esperança, de que o primeiro tinha partido o ano de 1503 e o outro o ano de 1504. E é coisa admirável de vêr que este ano de 1505 saíssem de Lisboa para a Índia três armadas que constavam de trinta naus, em tempo que não faltavam outras para as conquistas de África, e as armadas das costas."

85. See File:Armada_portugaise - Armada portugaise, Livre de Lisuarte de Abreu, public domain. Ret 4 Jan 2013.

86. See Ficheiro:D. Duarte de Meneses 4° governador da Índia.JPG - Ret 4 Jan 2013.

87. See Vasco de Ataíde - "Vasco de Ataíde (ou Taide) foi um marinheiro português que comandou um dos navios da expedição de Pedro Álvares Cabral na descoberta do Brasil. Sabe-se muito pouco sobre ele e permanece controverso o seu destino. Alguns historiadores consideram que seu navio, entre os que compunha a esquadra de Pedro Alvares Cabral foi um dos quatro naufragados na tempestade de 24 de maio de 1500, quando haviam deixado a costa brasileira e rumavam para a Índia.". Ret 5 Jan 2013.

88. See Duarte Pacheco Pereira - "Filho de João Pacheco e de sua mulher Isabel Pereira, Cavaleiro dos mais notáveis da História da Índia Portuguesa, nasceu em Lisboa em 1460. Um dos seus antepassados por varonia e por bastardia foi seu trisavô D. Diogo Lopes Pacheco, 8.º Senhor de Ferreira de Aves, um dos executores de Inês de Castro, casado com D. Joana Vasques Pereira. Tendo fugido para a Espanha, retornou à época da Crise de 1383-1385, apoiando o Mestre de Avis, com quem conseguiu recuperar todos os seus bens, tornando-se um dos conselheiros do novo monarca."

89. See Vasco da Gama - Ret 3 Jan 2013.

- 89.1 "Era filho legítimo de Estêvão da Gama, que em 1460 era cavaleiro da casa de D. Fernando de Portugal, Duque de Viseu e Mestre da Ordem de Cristo. D. Fernando nomeara-o alcaide-mor de SInés e permitira-lhe receber uma pequena receita de impostos sobre a fabricação de sabão em Estremoz. Estêvão da Gama era casado com Dona Isabel Sodré, filha de João Sodré (também conhecido como João de Resende). Sodré, que era de ascendência Inglesa..."

90. See File:Departure of fleet from Lisbon harbor.jpg - Ret 5 Jan 2013.

91. See KATZENELLENBOGEN (more correctly Katzenelnbogen, sometimes with the epithet Ashkenazi) - Ret 5 Jan 2013.

92. See File:Mikolaj Krzysztof Radziwill Sierotka.PNG - Ret 6 Jan 2013.

93. See File:Venice, by Bolognino Zaltieri, 1565.jpg - Ret 6 Jan 2013.

94. From the author's own collection:

- 94.1 File: Crop_1_Hillary_and_Lonia.jpg - H.A. Braun at about 25 years of age. Ret 7 Jan 2013.

- 94.2 File: Crop_1_Patagonia1977_1_.jpg - Pablo Edronkin at 9 years of age. Ret 7 Jan 2013.

- 94.3 File: Cropped_1_Pablo_Edronkin_35Y.jpg - Pablo Edronkin at 40 years of age. Ret 7 Jan 2013.

- 94.4 File: Cropped_1_Pablo_Edronkin_19Y.jpg - Pablo Edronkin at 19 years of age. Ret 7 Jan 2013.

- 94.5 File: Cruise_2_.jpg - H.A. Braun in a cruise, 1934. Ret 1 Mar 2013.

- 94.6 File: Cruise_1a.jpg - H.A. Braun in the Atlantic, possibly on the MS Pilsudsky, 1935. Ret 1 Mar 2013.

- 94.7 File: Ship_1_.jpg - H.A. Braun, onboard the S.S. Córdoba, 1948. Ret 4 Mar 2013.

- 94.8 File: Ship_2_.jpg - H.A. Braun, onboard the S.S. Córdoba, 1948. Ret 4 Mar 2013.

- 94.9 File: Ship_3_.jpg - H.A. Braun, onboard the S.S. Córdoba, 1948. Ret 4 Mar 2013.

- 94.10 File: Ship_5_.jpg - H.A. Braun, onboard the S.S. Córdoba, 1948. Ret 4 Mar 2013.

- 94.11 File: Y_13_.jpg - H.A. Braun, onboard the S.S. Córdoba, 1948. Ret 4 Mar 2013.

- 94.12 File: Y_14_.jpg - Unknown author, using the camera of H.A. Braun, Vigo, Spain, 1948. Ret 4 Mar 2013.

- 94.13 File: Ship_4_.jpg - H.A. Braun, onboard the S.S. Córdoba, 1948. Ret 4 Mar 2013.

- 94.14 File: Ship_6_.jpg - H.A. Braun, onboard the S.S. Córdoba, 1948. Ret 4 Mar 2013.

- 94.15 File: Ship_7_.jpg - H.A. Braun, onboard the S.S. Córdoba, 1948. Ret 4 Mar 2013.

- 94.16 File: Ship_8_.jpg - H.A. Braun, onboard the S.S. Córdoba, 1948. Ret 4 Mar 2013.

- 94.17 File: Rome_1_.jpg - H.A. Braun, 1946. Ret 4 Mar 2013.

- 94.18 File: Landscapes_1_.jpg -H.A. Braun, 1947. Ret 4 Mar 2013.

- 94.19 File: Anders_1_.jpg -H.A. Braun, 1947. Ret 4 Mar 2013.

- 94.20 File: Anders_2_.jpg - H.A. Braun, 1947. Ret 4 Mar 2013.

- 94.21 File: Anders_3_.jpg - H.A. Braun, 1947. Ret 4 Mar 2013.

- 94.22 File: Anders_4_.jpg - H.A. Braun, 1947. Ret 4 Mar 2013.

- 94.23 File: Anders_5_.jpg - H.A. Braun, 1947. Ret 4 Mar 2013.

- 94.24 File: Anders_6_.jpg - H.A. Braun, 1947. Ret 4 Mar 2013.

- 94.25 File: URSS_5.jpg - They usually rehearsed the documents they intended to falsify, like in this case. D. Edronkin and D. Edronkin, 1941 to 1945. Ret 4 Mar 2013.

- 94.26 File: Patagonia_1965_78_.jpg - Picture taken near Bariloche, Patagonia, Argentina. Unknown author, 1965. Ret 4 Mar 2013.

- 94.27 File: URSS_6_.jpg - Unknown author, before 1941. Ret 4 Mar 2013.

- 94.28 File: URSS_4_1_.jpg - 1953. Ret 4 Mar 2013.

- 94.29 File: Patagonia_1965_50_.jpg - ca 1965. Ret 4 Mar 2013.

- 94.30 File: Xenia_3_.jpg - 1991. Ret 4 Mar 2013.

- 94.31 File: URSS_1.jpg - Unknown author, ca 1935. Ret 5 Mar 2013.

- 94.32 File: Xenia_docs_1_1.jpg - 1948. Scanned 5 Mar 2013 from the original document.

- 94.34 File: Hary_Rozen.jpg - Before 1939. Scanned 9 Apr 2013 from the original document; there is a copy of this same picture, which was held by surviving relatives or the Rozen family - cousins of the Blats. The picture was attached to Hary's Yad Vashem page of testimony. See [1.140][1.163] above.

- 94.35 File: PP_875_.jpg - S.S. Olimpia, Pablo Edronkin, 2013, watercolour and pencil. Based on pictures of her sister ships Ravello and Napoli, see [177].

- 94.36 File: IMG_1067.png - A picture of the Nerkabtu cockpit. Ret 29 Jul 2013.

- 94.37 File: Nathan_Blat_and_the_NW_house.jpeg - The picture shows Natan Blat in front of some shops located at the family house in Nowy Dwór Maz. It was probably taken between 1950 and 1960.

- 94.38 File: Nathan_Blat_1a.jpeg.

- 94.39 File: Nathan_Blat_1961_.jpeg - Taken in 1961 for his ID card.

- 94.40 File: Nowolipki_45.jpg - Picture taken by the author in 2010.

- 94.41 File: 100_0920.jpg - Picture taken by Yolanda Braun in 2009.

- 94.42 File: Smocza_3.jpg - Picture taken by Alejandro Edronkin in 2010 at ul. Smocza, Warsaw, showing the spot that corresponds to building 3, which before WWII was occupied by a building owned by Dawid Blat.

- 94.43 File: Ela_Yolanda_and_Wojciek.jpg - A picture of Wojcieck, Jolanta and Elzbieta Braun taken during WWII in Nowy Dwór, then called "Neuhof". Reverse is 94.44.

- 94.44 File: Ela_Yolanda_and_Wojciek.jpg - An inscription by Ela Braun: "Dear Mom: A memory of the war, signed by Wojciek, Jolanta and Ela", 6 Sep 1943. Anverse is 94.43.

- 94.45 File: Kazimierz_Braun_.jpg - A portrait of Kazimierz Braun.

- 94.46 File: Ursula_Braun.jpg - Cropped image of Ursula Braun, neé Górecka. Taken from a family picture, from her house in Nowy Dwór Maz.

- 94.47 File: Lonia_Braun.jpg - Portrait of Lonia Braun, after WWII.

- 94.48 File: Egypt_1.jpg - Portrait of H.A. Braun taken in Egypt, during WWII.

- 94.49 File: Child_Wojciek_2a.jpg - On the left side of the picture, Jadwiga Braun appears with her husband and son during holidays, before WWII.

- 94.50 File: Child_Wojciek_3.jpg - Danusia Braun and her son, Wojciek at the entrance of their home in Slonim, before the war.

95. Zeszyty Historiczne - Wspomnienia - Polska Droga Przez Meke; Alicia Dmuchowska, Institut Literacky, Paryz, 1998. P 136-154.

96. See File:Infante D Manuel.jpg - Manuel II of Portugal with 12 years old. From Wikipedia. Public Domain. Crop_1_482px-Infante_D_Manuel.jpg is the result of cropping and inverting the original image to show both people ([95][96]) in a similar posture. Ret 7 Jan 2013.

97. See File:ManuelIIPortugal.jpg - Henrique de Meneses

98. See Ukrain'ska Lista Katyn'ska - Ret 1 Mar 2013.

99. See Córdoba - Historia y Arqueologia Marítima. Buques de pasajeros argentinos. Ret 28 Feb 2013. N.A: Since I have not found a picture depicting the S.S. Olimpia in its entirety, I made this representation based on pictures and cards of her two sister ships S.S. Ravello and S.S. Napoli, of the same company; the three ships were converted from cargo to passenger (immigrant) configuration shortly after WWII. Considering that they served prior to the war as cargo ships, I assumed that the picture of the Ravello found at [177] is representative of that configuration, while cards of the Napoli show the type it its more modern, post-1945 setup.

100. See Lopo Vaz de Sampaio - "fue un hidalgo portugués, 6º gobernador de la India portuguesa, cargo que desempeñó desde 1526 hasta 1529. Armado caballero por el rey Alfonso V de Portugal, fue un ilustre combatiente en tierras del norte de África y en la India. Durante su gobierno, un portugués llamado Antonio Tenreiro hizo un viaje por tierra desde la India a Portugal. En 1529 fue sustituido por Nuno da Cunha en el cargo de gobernador y mandado prender por razones políticas y comerciales. Llegó como prisionero a Portugal y consiguió de nueva la libertad, después de algún tiempo, tras una petición enviada al rey João III de Portugal." From Wikipedia. Public domain. Ret 8 Jan 2013.

- 100.1 Lopo Vaz de Sampaio - "Lopo Vaz de Sampaio was the 6th Governor of Portuguese India from 1526 to 1529. He was also the captain of Vasco da Gama, a famous Portuguese explorer. During 1528–29, Lopo Vaz de Sampaio seized the fort of Mahim from the Gujarat Sultanate, when the King was at war with Nizam-ul-mulk, the emperor of Chaul, a town south of Bombay." Ret 8 Jan 2013.

- 100.2 Lopo Vaz de Sampaio - "Armado cavaleiro por D. Afonso V, foi um ilustre combatente em terras do Norte de África e da Índia. Durante o seu governo, um português de nome António Tenreiro efectuou uma viagem por terra da Índia a Portugal. Em 1529, foi substituído por Nuno da Cunha no cargo de governador e mandado prender por questões políticas e comerciais. Veio como prisioneiro para Portugal e conquistou de novo a liberdade, ao fim de algum tempo, depois de enviada uma petição ao Rei D. João III.". Ret 8 Jan 2013.

101. See Henrique de Meneses - Ret 7 Jan 2013.

- 101.1 "Em Dezembro de 1524, após a morte de Vasco da Gama, foi nomeado Governador da Índia. Nessa época o mar da Índia, principalmente as costas do Malabar, tinha-se 'transformado em viveiro de piratas'. Contra isso Vasco da Gama preparava uma expedição punitiva, quando a morte o encontrou."

102. See Foundations of the Portuguese Empire: 1415-1580 - By Bailey Bailey Wallys Diffie, George George Davison Winius. P 286, 287.

103. See The History of Portugal - By James Maxwell Anderson.

104. See Mahim Fort - Ret 7 Jan 2013.

105. See File:Portuguese Carracks off a Rocky Coast.jpg - Public domain. Ret 8 Jan 2013.

106. See Vasco Da Gama and His Successors 1460 to 1580 - By K. G. Jayne. Ret 9 Jan 2013.

- 106.1 P 128.

- 106.2 P 125.


- 107.1 "Those who may have inferred from the Viceroy’s own habits that he would be lenient to his subordinates were soon undeceived. D. Vasco da Gama held that the lower classes should be taught to keep to their proper station; including in the lower classes almost all persons who did not happen to be the Count of Vidigueira. Before his flotilla put to sea, he had posted at the foot of the masts an order that any woman detected on board after the ships had passed Belem would be publicly flogged. If she were married, her husband would be sent home in irons; if a slave, she would be sold and the proceeds given to charity; while any captain willfully concealing such a stowaway would be cashiered. The fleet arrived at Mozambique on the 14th of August, and halted for the flagship to repair a sprung yardarm. As it lay hove-to, three women stowaways were denounced to the Viceroy, and placed under arrest."

108. See File:Lopo Vaz de Sampaio.jpg - Public domain. Ret 9 Jan 2013.

109. See Saul Wahl - Ret 10 Jan 2013.

110. See KATZENELLENBOGEN - Ret 10 Jan 2013.

111. See File:Potega Rzeczypospolitej u zenitu Zlota wolnosc Elekcja 1573.JPG - Ret 10 Jan 2013.

112. See File:Münster Thier 2.jpg - "Meerwunder vnd seltzame Thier / wie die in den Mitnächtigen Ländern / im Meer vnd auff dem Landt gefunden werden (taken from the vignettes on Olaus Magnus's Carta marina), Basel c. 1544, 34 x 28 cm". Ret 11 Jan 2013.

113. See File:Azulejos Parque Eduardo VII-1.jpg - Ret 12 Jan 2013.

114. See File:Azulejos Porto.JPG - Ret 12 Jan 2013.

115. See File:Henry the Navigator1.jpg - "Detail of standing man with moustache and Burgundian-style chaperon in the 'Panel of the Prince' (third panel of the St. Vincent panels, usually dated c.1470, attributed to painter Nuno Gonçalves). This figure is most commonly identified as Prince Henry the Navigator (died 1460, aged 66). Several scholars (e.g. Markl, 1994; Salvador Marques, 1998) have recently disputed this identification, and instead proposed this to be an image of King Edward of Portugal (d. 1438, aged 47), although this is not yet widely accepted." Ret 12 Jan 2013.

116. See File:Alternative Henry the Navigator (St. Vincent Panels).jpg - "Image of a Portuguese knight, which some art historians believe to be the true portrait of Infante Henry the Navigator, first Duke of Viseu. Detail from the fifth panel of the polyptych Adoration of Saint Vincent, attributed to Portuguese Renaissance painter Nuno Gonçalves, composed c.1470 (possibly as early as 1450s). Originally found at the monastery of São Vicente de Fora, now held by the National Museum of Ancient Art in Lisbon, Portugal." Ret 12 Jan 2013.

117. See Ínclita geração - "A expressão refere-se ao valor individual destes príncipes - os que chegaram à idade adulta, uma vez que os dois primeiros filhos do casal morreram ainda crianças - que se destacaram em sua época pelo seu elevado grau de educação, valor militar, grande sabedoria e predominância na vida pública portuguesa." Ret 13 Jan 2013.

118. See João I de Portugal - Ret 13 Jan 2013.

119. See Philippa of Lancaster - Ret 13 Jan 2013.

120. See Henry IV of England - Ret 13 Jan 2013.

121. See Gonçalo Velho Cabral - Ret 13 Jan 2013.

122. See Gil Eanes - Ret 13 Jan 2013.

123. See Caravela - Ret 13 Jan 2013.

124. See Fra Mauro - Ret 13 Jan 2013.

125. See Descobrimentos portugueses - Ret 13 Jan 2013.

- 125.1 "Na segunda metade do século XIV, surtos de peste bubónica levaram a um grave despovoamento: a economia era extremamente localizada em poucas cidades e a migração do campo levou ao abandono da agricultura e ao aumento do desemprego nas povoações. Só o mar oferecia alternativas, com a maioria da população fixada nas zonas costeiras de pesca e comércio."

- 125.2 "Há unanimidade dos historiadores em considerar a conquista de Ceuta como o início da expansão portuguesa, tipicamente referida como os Descobrimentos. Foi uma praça conquistada com relativa facilidade, por uma expedição organizada por D. João I, em 1415. A aventura ultramarina ganharia grande impulso através da acção do Infante D. Henrique, reconhecido internacionalmente como o seu grande impulsionador, e continuada pelo seu sobrinho e protegido Infante D. Fernando, duque de Beja e Viseu."

- 125.3 "Os muçulmanos dominavam o estreito de Gibraltar e eram poderosos em Granada. Pela sua posição geográfica, Ceuta era uma base naval que podia servir de apoio à navegação entre a península itálica e Portugal, permitindo também reprimir ou tolher a pirataria dos mouros nas costas do Atlântico."

- 125.4 "As conquistas de Marrocos, porém, sob o impulso do Infante D. Henrique, vieram a dar lugar aos descobrimentos. Segundo Gomes Eanes de Zurara, na Crónica do descobrimento e conquista da Guiné (Capítulo VII), as expedições organizadas pelo Infante tinham cinco motivações:

(1ª) conhecer a terra além das Canárias e do cabo Bojador;

(2ª) trazer ao reino mercadorias;

(3ª) saber até onde chegava o poder dos muçulmanos;

(4ª) encontrar aliados que o pudessem ajudar numa guerra que durava há trinta e um anos;

(5ª) e trazer para a fé de Cristo todas as almas que se quisessem salvar. Se, com o Infante, ao avançar pela costa de África na direcção do sul, parece haver sobretudo a intenção de envolver pela retaguarda o grande poderio islâmico, adversário da Cristandade (uma estratégia militar e diplomática tributária do espírito das Cruzadas), a crescente intervenção dos "cavaleiros-mercadores" (Magalhães Godinho) nos reinados de D. Afonso V e D. João II, acabará por levar a expansão portuguesa até ao Oriente em busca das especiarias. Em 1453, com a tomada de Constantinopla pelos Otomanos, as trocas comerciais no Mediterrâneo de Veneza e de Génova ficaram muito reduzidas. O proveito de uma rota comercial alternativa mostrava-se recompensador. Portugal iria ligar directamente as regiões produtoras das especiarias aos seus mercados na Europa. Quando se firma o projecto da descoberta do caminho marítimo para a Índia, a expansão portuguesa sem esquecer a vertente religiosa está também já dominada pelo interesse comercial."

126. See Gomes Eanes de Zurara - Ret 13 Jan 2013.

127. See Painéis de São Vicente de Fora - Ret 13 Jan 2013.

128. See Saint Vincent Panels - Ret 13 Jan 2013.

- 128.1 "The majority of experts who have studied this polyptych agree that the panels display several social groups of the fifteenth century. They also agree that the children of king João I are represented on these panels, but they don't agree who is whom."

- 128.2 "One of the more controversial issues is the depiction of Prince Henry the Navigator. The man in black in the third panel is immediately consonant with popular conceptions of Prince Henry's likeness - a man with a light moustache and distinctive black round chaperon - which can be found in numerous pictures and statues of Prince Henry today. However, there are strong reasons to doubt that this is him"

- 128.3 "The alternative hypotheses that assert Henry the Navigator is not the man-in-the-round-black-chaperon identify him another panel, the fifth panel known as the 'Panel of the Knights'. The alternative interpretation would indicate that these four knights are the four younger brothers of King Edward of Portugal."

129. See Henry the Navigator - Ret 13 Jan 2013.

130. See Prince Henry, The Navigator - Ret 13 Jan 2013.

- 130.1 "Henry was born in 1394, the third surviving son of King John of Portugal and a member of a large and diverse family of European royals. In those days strong monarchs cemented their alliances by marrying their daughters off to the rulers of strategically important nations, with the result that after a few centuries everyone at the highest level of society was related to everyone else. Henry's mother was Philippa of Lancaster, daughter of John of Gaunt; Henry was cousin to three English kings, all also named Henry (IV, V, and VI), and his aunt was married to the king of Castile. Henry himself became a member of a religious order and never married."

- 130.2 "In Henry's time, Portugal developed into a major sea power mainly because it had to. The country lies along the Atlantic coast of the Iberian Peninsula, literally at the farthest southwestern end of Europe. Overland contact with neighboring countries could only be achieved by travel through the hostile kingdoms of Aragon and Castile, with the Pyrenees mountains as an added barrier at the border with France. Sea travel meant braving the rough and difficult Atlantic rather than the placid Mediterranean. As Lloyd A. Brown explained in The Story of Maps, 'The Portuguese had fallen heir to the best and worst qualities of mankind; the most highly developed culture was combined with the most primitive barbarity. The result was a people of unusual courage, ingenuity, and greed.'"

- 130.3 "Though Henry's influence on navigation was considerable, it was not formally organized. He never established any institutions for the teaching of navigation, but he supported cartographers who recorded and compiled all the information brought back by mariners. His home became a magnet for instrument makers, mapmakers, and craftsmen who learned from and improved upon one another's work. Portuguese sea captains were in demand in other nations, because of their superior skill and equipment­the fruit of Henry's efforts."

131. See File:Samuel Oppenheimer.jpg - Ret 16 Jan 2013.

132. See OPPENHEIMER, SAMUEL - Ret 16 Jan 2013.

133. See Datei:Vienna Battle 1683.jpg - Ret 16 Jan 2013.

134. See Samuel Oppenheimer - Ret 16 Jan 2013.

135. See Blanche of Lancaster - Ret 17 Jan 2013.

136. See Isabel of Beaumont - Ret 17 Jan 2013.

137. See Henry de Beaumont - Ret 17 Jan 2013.

138. See John of Gaunt - Ret 17 Jan 2013.

139. See Alice Comyn - Ret 17 Jan 2013.

140. See File:Thetriumphofdeath.jpg - Ret 17 Jan 2013.

141. See VICTORIA LUISE WRECK TALE.; Vessel Was Entering Kingston Harbor -- Rescue of the Passengers. - Original 29 Dec 1906 news report from The New York Times. Ret 28 Feb 2013.

142. See File:Albert Ballin 2.jpg - Taken before 1918, Wikipedia - Berthold Budde, Peter Bayerlein: Harenberg Personenlexikon 20. Jahrhundert. Dortmund 1994, ISBN 3-611-00395-6, S. 58. Ret 28 Feb 2013.

143. See Albert Ballin - Ret 28 Feb 2013.

144. See M/S Pilsudski & M/S Batory - Ret 28 Feb 2013.

145. See Flota argentina de navegacion de ultramar - F.A.N.U. - Historia y Arqueologia Marítima. Cias de navegacion argentinas. Ret 28 Feb 2013.

146. See Jews and the slave trade - "Several scholarly works have been published to rebut the antisemitic canard of Jewish domination of the slave trade in Medieval Europe, Africa, and/or the Americas, and that Jews had no major or continuing impact on the history of New World slavery. They possessed far fewer slaves than non-Jews in every British territory in North America and the Caribbean, and in no period did they play a leading role as financiers, shipowners, or factors in the transatlantic or Caribbean slave trades.". Ret 31 Mar 2013.

147. See Guttle Schnapper The file was posted, according to terms & conditions of, by Amy Thompson, 10 Jun 2011. No copyright remarks were foud so far on this file. Ret 11 Apr 2013.

148. See Inês de Castro - Ret 16 Apr 2013.

149. See Ficheiro:Tumulo de Inés de Castro.jpg - Ret 16 Apr 2013.

150. See João de Portugal, Duque de Valência de Campos - Ret 18 Apr 2013.

- 150.1 "Muitos historiadores duvidam do casamento de seus pais. Outros, de acordo com a declaração de Cantanhede, feita pelo rei em 12 de junho de 1360, consideram verdadeiro o casamento secreto do rei com sua mãe, a dama castelhana, Inês de Castro"

- 150.2 "D. João era filho ilegítimo do rei D. Pedro I e de D. Teresa, uma dama galega (ms. 352 do Arquivo Nacional da Torre do Tombo da Crónica de el-rei D. Pedro I, de Fernão Lopes). Em 1364 foi consagrado Grão Mestre da Ordem de Avis."

151 See Pedro I de Portugal - Ret 20 Apr 2013.

152. See File:PeterIofPortugal.jpg - Ret Apr 2013. Public domain.

153. See João I de Portugal - Ret 22 Apr 2013.

154. See Ficheiro:Anoniem - Koning Johan I van Portugal (1450-1500) - Lissabon Museu Nacional de Arte Antiga 19-10-2010 16-12-61.jpg - Ret 22 Apr 2013. Public domain.

155. See File:Filipa lencastre.jpg - Ret 22 Apr 2013.

156. See Ficheiro:Casamento João I e Filipa Lencastre 02.jpg - Ret 22 Apr 2013.

157. See Ficheiro:PORTOGALLO2007 (1571036062).jpg - Ret 22 Apr 2013.

158. See Philippa of Lancaster, Queen of Portugal - Ret 22 Apr 2013.

159. See Philippa of Lancaster, Queen of Portugal - Ret 22 Apr 2013.

160. See Duarte I de Portugal - Ret 6 May 2013.

161. See Ficheiro:Duarte-P.jpg - Ret 6 May 2013.

162. See Bem Cavalgar - Ret 6 May 2013.

163. See Ficheiro:AfonsoV-P.jpg - Ret 16 May 2013.

164. See Afonso V de Portugal - Ret 16 May 2013.

165. See Ficheiro:FraMauroMap.jpg - Ret 16 May 2013, public domain.

166. See Ficheiro:Tapecarias de pastrana arzila detalhe.png - Ret 16 May 2013, public domain.

167. See File:Afonso V.jpg - Ret 16 May 2013, public domain.

168. See File:Afonso V.PNG - "Contemporary portrait of Afonso V of Portugal, as depicted in the Itinerarium of Georg von Ehingen (printed 1600, Augsburg, but based on earlier image c.1470)", Ret 16 May 2013, public domain.

169. See Pedro de Portugal, 1.º Duque de Coimbra - Ret 22 May 2013.

170. See Mapamundi de Fra Mauro - Ret 24 May 2013.

171. See Juan II de Portugal - Ret 28 May 2013.

172. See João II de Portugal - Ret 28 May 2013.

173. See Ficheiro:JoaoII-P.jpg - Ret 28 May 2013, public domain.

174. See Jorge de Lencastre, 2nd Duke of Coimbra - Ret 6 Jun 2013.

175. See File:2º Duque de Coimbra.jpg - "Close-up of an oil painting of Dom Jorge, 2d Duke of Coimbra, master of Santiago Military Order, bastard son of John II of Portugal, head of the Lancastre Family in Portugal." Ret 6 Jun 2013.

176. See Jorge de Lancastre - Ret 6 Jun 2013.

177. See Historia y Arqueología Marítima - Líneas de buques de pasajeros desde europa a Sud América, Flotta Lauro (Lauro Lines), Italia, 1912-1980; see also [94.35].

178. See File:Pulqui II No.05.jpg - The fifth prototype IAe 33 Pulqui II jet fighter during flight testing; from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, public domain. Ret 6 Jul 2013.

179. See File:SUEreabasteciendo1.jpg - AMDBA Super Etendard 3-A-211, picture by Martín Otero; from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, public domain. Ret 10 Jul 2013.

180. See The BMW 003 (109-003) Turbojet -, Ret 19 Jul 2013.

181. See BMW 003 - Wikipedia, Ret 19 Jul 2013.

182. See File:BMW 003 2010-04-03.jpg - BMW-003 engine, picture by Bergfalke2; from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, public domain. Ret 17 Jul 2013.

183. See Origins of German Jet Power - Ret 22 Jul 2013.

- 183.1 See Jet Propulsion - "BMW's P.3302 turbojet evolved into the 109-003 engine and this, with Junkers 109-004, were to become the two more developed and therfore most used turbojets for Germany in the later war years.", ret 22 Jul 2013.

- 183.2 See Jet Propulsion - "An abortive attempt was made in March 1942 to fly the prototype Messerschmitt Me 262 V1 with two BMW 003 turbojets (P. 3302), still with its nose mounted piston engine. At an altitude of 165 ft both turbojets flamed out and it was discovered that the compressor blades in both engines were broken. The BMW 003 had to be entirely redesigned, and the revised power plant, the BMW 003A with a greater mass flow, was not destined to fly until October 1943, and then beneath a Ju 88A test bed.", ret 22 Jul 2013.

- 183.1 See Jet Propulsion, continued - "The less-advanced Junkers engine did, in fact, initially overhaul the BMW engine...", ret 22 Jul 2013.

184. See Yad Vashem - World center for holocaust research. A word of caution: Some of the pictures linked here for historical and documentary purposes show quite graphical violence and cruelty. Viewer discretion is required.

- 184.1 - The Rozen testimonies:

-- 184.1.1 See Pages of testimony submitted by Yokheved Rozen - These testimonies establish links between the following surnames: Aronsohn, Berlinski, Borzykowski, Brawer, Gross, Krakowski, Levi, Lewkowicz, Meirantz, Opatowsky, Ordinans, Ostrowiecki, Percyk, Reichert, Redlich, Wetsztejn, Adler, Ostrowiecki, Berger, Malis, Salomon, Rozen, et al.

-- 184.1.2 See Pages of testimony submitted by Yekhezkel Rozen - These testimonies prove familiar connections between the following surnames: Blat, Finkelstein, Lelczuk, Wagman, Weiss, Goldkorn, Rozen and Taub. The surname Justman is also derived from these, which in turn, is linked to Alter - Rotenberg, also linked to the surnames Braun, Klepfisz and Schoenberg.

Both the testimonies of Yokheved and Yekhezkel Rozen prove links between several family names; in turn, surviving civil records in Warsaw and other cities permit to establish links to other surnames such as Skowronek, Schoenberg, Justman, Kronenberg, Auerbach, etc. Most of these links declared by the Rozens can be confirmed by other means, including pages of testimony submitted by other relatives, witnesses and survivors.

- 184.2 - The Hatalgi - Halpern testimonies:

-- 184.2.1 See Pages of testimony submitted by Theodore Hatalgi - Links surnames such as Skowronek, Ferszt, Schoenberg, Berlinerblau, Scherling et al.

-- 184.2.2 See Pages of testimony submitted by Naomi Halpern - Naomi Halpern and Theodore Hatalgi were related to one another.

- 184.3 - The Schiffer - Soloveitchik testimonies - These establish links between surnames like Schiffer, Soloveitchik, Schoenberg, Kleyzinger, Oppenheim et al. From the Soloveitchik name others such as Lichtenstein and Landau further links are derived. These names also appear related to the clan in other ways, according to civil records.

- 184.4 - The Wertheim testimonies - These link surnames like Wertheim, Braun, Schoenberg, Fuks, Goldblat, Brylant, et al.

- 184.5 See pictures depicting Nowolipki 45, Warsaw.

- 184.6 See pictures depicting SS general Juergen Stroop.

- 184.7 See pictures of Slonim

- 184.8 See pictures of Soviets executed by the Nazi in the Slonim area.

- 184.9 See NKVD-related pictures.

- 184.10 See pictures depicting ul. Chlodna during WWII

- 184.11 See Warsaw, Poland, Postwar, Rachel Auerbach and Hirsch Wasser - "Warsaw, Poland, Postwar, Rachel Auerbach and Hirsch Wasser unearthing part of the 'Ringelblum ('Oneg Shabbat') Archives', September 1946." Item ID 43447, sig 1605/1030, source Alexander Bernfas, Credit Yad Vashem.

185. See Osrodek KARTA - Indeks represjonowanych.

- 185.1 See Dawid Blatt, NKVD records.

186. See Ksiazka Formacyno - Adresowa 'Cala Warszawa' - Wyd P.I.K.A., K1086, thorough 1930 Warsaw business and address directory. There is a more recent version of this guide - 1938 - but it is still not digitized. However, a copy is available at the Z.I.H. (Jewish Historical Institute), Warsaw. A significant fact about these directories is that sometimes the same surnames and names are written differently, based on idiomatic issues, but they often refer to the same people. See The Skowronek Bankers - Sources and References - Properties owned in Warsaw, in 1930 for a complete list of the 1930 properties found.

187. See Kategoria:Zamoyscy - Ret 29 Aug 2013.

188. See Waliców / Ceglana - Ret 3 Sep 2013.

189. See Józefa Ungra Kalendarz Warszawski Popularno-Naukowy na rok 1914 - 1914 Warsaw Calendar, Digital Library of the University of Lodz (see edition description) thorough

- 189.1 P 252 - Szejnberg i Skowronek, [ul. Zelazna] 43, hip 5802.

190. See Józefa Ungra Kalendarz Warszawski Popularno-Naukowy na rok 1913 - 1913 Warsaw Calendar, Digital Library of the University of Lodz (see edition description) thorough

- 190.1 P 263 - Szenberg Icek, [ul. Kowienska] 7, hip 1079.

191. See File:Augustbelmont.jpg - Portrait of August Belmont / Daguerreotype. Pubic domain. Ret 18 Sep 2013.

192 - The Rosenkranz testimonies: The pictures by Avner Rosenkranz before 1939 and submitted by him and Golda Rosenkranz to Yad Vashem, mainly taken in the area of Izbica Lubelski are significant because they suggest the relationship between several family names that appear also associated in Warsaw. This means that people named so in other certain places described by Avner are also relatives.

- 192.1 See Izbica Lubelski, Poland, Prewar, Metze Blat, Malkale Weiss and the sister Wertman - This picture shows a young woman that belonged to the Blat family of Radom.

- 192.2 See Izbica Lubelski, Poland, Prewar, A group photograph - "Hersh Leist, Rachel Vortman, Etel Rotker, Yosel Weintraub, Yosel Kremerman, Tzirel Waserman, Shlomo Mandel, Miriam Leist, Bracha Orlich, Shlomo Rosen." Orlich (Erlich) and Rosen are surnames linked to the family.

- 192.3 See Izbica Lubelski, Poland, Prewar, Yosef (Yosel) Lerner, son of Itche Shmuels, with Chana Leist from Krasnystaw - Lerner is a surname associated with the family.

- 192.4 See Izbica Lubelski, Poland, A group photograph. - "Malka Weiss, Frodel Schiffman, Metze Blat, Gitel Scharf, Yachtshe Zuker, Leah Blat, Merese and Gedalyahu Scharf." Weiss is also a surname that appears linked to the family.

- 192.5 See Izbica Lubelski, Poland, Prewar, Etel Zalman Elivers, Liebe Steinberg, Malka Leibish Meirs. - Steinberg is a name apparently linked to the family.

- 192.6 See Izbica Lubelski, Poland, Libe Kamien, Nechama Gold and Beila Leist - Kaminer and Kamienni are surnames linked to the family; Kamien might be a variant of these.

- 192.7 See Izbica Lubelski, Poland, Prewar, Leibele Blat, Chana Tzvekin, Hersh Zatz, Moshe Zatz and Itzik Kosman - A Blat, probably from Radom.

- 192.8 See Izbica Lubelski, Poland, Founders of the Y. L. Peretz Library. - "Avraham Brinker, Yeshayahu Korenfeld, Shimshon Waserman, Shmuel Akerman, Yerachmiel Blat, Chaim Aler, Moshe Tuchman, Yona Frank, Moshe Honik."

- 192.9 See Izbica Lubelski, Poland, Prewar, A group photograph - "Hendel Green, Shimon Alenko, Leitshe Itzkovitz, Sane Blat, Ester Green, Shaul Scharf, Sarah Green. "

- 192.10 See Izbica Lubelski, Poland, Tzirel Alters and Frimet Striegler - "Alters" is probably "Alter" since no other people by the name Alters have been found using JewishGen database. Alter is another name linked to the family.

- 192.11 See Izbica Lubelski, Poland, Prewar, Yishayahu Rosenberg and family - While a pretty common surname, Rosenberg is also a surname linked to the family.

As confirming evidence regarding the Rozenkranz pictures, take a look at the Shtunzeiger testimonies [214].

193 - The Feferman testimonies - These testimonies establish links between branches of the Blat family, as well as other families such as Kohn, Magnosever, Wais et al.

194. See Schoenberg, Alexander Julius Wilhelm - A short bio at the Jewish Virtual Library, ret 28 Sep 2013.

195. See Biographies - Jewish Virtual Library, ret 28 Sep 2013.

196. See Alexander Schönberg - Ret 28 Sep 2013.

197. Stammtafel der Familie Schönberg, Autor unbekannt, vermutl. zwischen 1900-1950 - Note: Since this tree made between 1900 and 1950 was created at a time in which anti - Semitism was rampant in Europe, and no author is cited (hence "Autor unbekannt") it should be taken with a measure of prudence since it wouldn't be the first time in history in which facts such as a Jewish connection that over four centuries would be probable in many families, could be obscured or hidden.

198. See The Rozen testimonies - These establish links between the Blat family, and other like Justman, Taub, Aronson, Meisels, Adler, Wagman, Danziger, Segal, Rotenberg, etc.

- 198.1 See Mosze Aaron Rozen - Pages of testimony submitted by him, which suggest that Blat and Blady are the same surname, since Rozen is linked to both.

- 198.2 See Mordekhai Rozen - Establishes links between Blat and the Eger (Eiger, Ejger) family name, hence proving once more the links to the Schoenberg family, which is linked to Eger.

199. See The Kronenberg testimonies - These prove various things regarding known surnames within the family such as Blat and Danziger. Kronenberg is itself one of such surnames.

200. See The Levitan testimonies - These prove links between the surname Brody and Blat in Lithuania. Since Brody is al already-known surname linked to the family in the past, hence they confirm that the Lithuanian Blats are linked to the Polish Blats[1.19][17].

201. See The Blatt - Rosochocki Testimonies - Testimonies from a branch of the Blat family living in Bedzin; the keypoint is that these testimonies mention the surname Rosochocki, which is also mentioned as second surname in the record entry of asset A5165[202.1].

- 202.1 See Page of testimony for Mindla Blat - Mindla's maiden name was Rosochocki; given the name of the original holder of rights of asset A5165[1.19][17] it becomes self-explanatory that the Blats from Bedzin, Kielce were related to those in Warsaw and that the holder of rights of the asset belongs to our family.

- 202.2 The name Rosochocki seems to be pretty uncommon, with only about 64 records, according to JewishGen (phonetical search), in Lomza, Piotrkow, Siedlice and Suwalki. Marriages related to these records indicate that in Sokolow Podlaski Khaia Zonenberg married Dawid Rosochocki in 1829, and Gitla Stejnberg married Nusko Rosochocki in 1881 - we do not have any other records regarding this people that might allow us to put them on the Skowronek family tree but they are without doubt, related: Zonenberg could be interpreted either as Sonnneberg, which is a surname found related in Warsaw on the side of the Rozen family, or as a variant of Schoenberg. Then, Stejnberg as such is also a related surname, but there are also cases in which this surname is really a deformation of Schoenberg. So, in this case, the odds are 50% on the fact that the Rosochocki family was directly related to Blat and Skowronek via the Schoenberg family, to which both are related, especially considering the small size of the whole set of people named Rosochocki at the time, in Poland. Then, the other odds - 25% and 25% - for the other surnames also bespeak of a relationship. This leads us to the suspicion that either the Rosochocki family was a little bit bigger and became directly related to Blat and Skowronek, or some direct ancestor of both families was a Rosochocki, because using a double surname such as Skowronek - Rosochocki is usually found within such a context.

203. See Unclassified Skowronek Relatives - Notes on links between family names in various cities that have not been integrated into the Skowronek tree but show existing relationships.

204. Search for the surname Blat in the Jewishgen database for the Kielce gubernia and you will find several records linking the surname Blat and Stejnberg.

- 204.1 BLAT Icyk 1866 M 2, 923375, - SZTAJNBERG Sora Zysla, 1866, M, 2, 923375 - Zarnowiec Births 1826-64 Marriage 1826-67 Deaths 1826-33,35-47, Kielce Gubernia / Krakow Province.

- 204.2 BLAT Estera 1903 D 26 23 F unmarried 18-Jul-03, Icek BLAT, Sura Zysla SZTAJNBERG, Zarnowiec, Zawiercie

- 204.3 BLAT Szifra 1904 D 7 18 F unmarried 17-Mar-04, Icek BLAT, Sura Zysla SZTERNBERG, Zarnowiec, Zawiercie

205. HEART Website - Holocaust era asset restitution taskforce. See also here for further details.

206. See The Ptak - Slivka Testimonies - Referred to the Przepiorki family.

207. See Muhammad's wives, Wikipedia, public domain.

- 207.1 "In Arabian culture, marriage was contracted in accordance with the larger needs of the tribe and was based on the need to form alliances within the tribe and with other tribes."

- 207.2 "At age 25, Muhammad wed his wealthy employer, the 40-year-old merchant Khadija. This marriage, his first, would be both happy and monogamous; Muhammad would rely on the wealthy Khadija in many ways, until her death 25 years later."

208. See The Ur Testimonies - Pages of testimony for the following surnames: Blat, Orlean, shklar, Zangwill and Soloway in Latvia. Blat and Orlean are related in Warsaw too.

209. See The Blat - Blada Testimonies - These testimonies, written by Barukh Blat, link the Goldkorns and Blats in Lodz. Since the Goldkorn family is related to Taub, Blat and Schoenberg in Warsaw, hence the connection between the Blats from Lodz and Warsaw is demonstrated.

210. See - The Holocaust Restitution Company of Israel.

- 210.1 A5165, Pesach Skowronek - Rosochocki, Warsaw, Poland, deposit.

211. See The Blat - Rikhter Testimonies - These testimonies complement others from the family of Yaakov Lejb Blat and Sheindl Kohen, particularly related to Avigdor Blat, one of their sons. These testimonies are also related to those written by Avigdor Kahana[212].

212. See The Blat - Rikhter Testimonies - Avigdor Kahana wrote several pages of testimony linking his own surname with those of Klein, Blat et al. in the Tarnow area. He is linked also to the people described in the Blat - Rikhter testimonies[211].

213. See The Gutman Testimonies - The testimonies left by Tonia Gutman are surely related to the Warsaw Blats since not only they refer to people already found and identified in the tree, but also deal with surnames that confirm the connection.

214. See The Shteinziger Testimonies - These pages of testimony prove the relationship between the Blats living in Warsaw and those from Izbica. The reason is that Bela Shteinziger cites as her relatives the following people:

- 214.1 Members of the Blat family, from Izbica. In some cases, the surname Shtenzeiger is written as Shtunzeiger, but both are the same person. In several cases she makes no mention about the kind of her relationship with the Izbica Blats, or states that she was an "acquaintance,"however, among these appears:

-- 214.1.1 Matl Blat, from Izbica, whom she describes him as her relative. Hence, establishing the familiar connection between the Blats from Izbica and any other relative that she might give testimony for.

This indicates without doubt that she was a relative of at least some Blats. Since Izbica was a small town, and familiar links can be clearly established between most Blats from the town just based on the existing pages of testimony, this suggests that all Isbica Blats were related to one another and the fact that Shtunzeiger described them as acquaintances was that she was not very close, but related to them thorough Matl Blat.

- 214.2 Members of the Adler family, from Izbica. Shtunzeiger cites then as "acquaintances."

-- 214.2.1 Considering the context of all people named Adler in Izbica (not just those cited by Shtunzeiger, but also Shtenzeiger et al) we obtain from Yad Vashem the following list.

- 214.3 Members of the Fuks family, from Izbica to which Shtunzeiger was also "acquainted".

- 214.4 Members of the Rozen family, from Izbica to which Shtunzeiger was also "acquainted".

- 214.5 Members of the Kamien family, from Izbica, while Surnames Kaminer, Kamien and Kaminer appear as related more or less directly to the Skowronek family in Warsaw.

- 214.5.1 Shtunzeiger declares that Szajndla Kamien was her relative.

These surnames are all related to the Skowronek family of Warsaw. Other surnames such as Waks, Weiss, Ehrlich, Berger, Margulis or their variants appear among Shtunzeiger's testimonies; these surnames also appear linked to Skowronek. Some of these surnames, such as Adler, Rozen, Landau and Margulis are typically rabbinical. The argument around Shtunzeiger's testimonies can be described as circumstantial but nevertheless strong due to the number of apparent coincidences between the ostensible acquaintances in Izbica plus some declared relatives with those names there, and the proven relationship between people bearing the same surnames in Warsaw and elsewhere. This is not a statistical artifact considering that there are several rabbinical surnames involved, and the existence of the pictures taken by Avner Rozenkranz, whose family name is related to Skowronek, regarding related people in Izbica [193].

215. See The Wislicka Testimonies - Pages of testimony submitted by Stella Wislicka regarding her family, which is related to the Fajnmesser surname of Warsaw, also related to Blat; on her grandmother side, she descends from the Braun and Lawendel families, both linked to Schoenberg.

216. See Aerospace engineering - Wikipedia.

217. Eger or Egers - Jewish Encyclopedia.

218. See File:AkivaEger2.jpg - "Portrait of Rabbi Akiva Eger of Posen (1761-1837); on the back is an inscription by its original owner, Rabbi Yoseph Eger of Halberstadt, whose father (and predecessor in the rabbinate of Halberstadt), also called Akiva, was a first cousin of the subject. R Yoseph died in 1854; therefore the portrait must have been painted before then. It is now in the collection of the Chabad Library." - Ret 10 Mar 2014, Wikipedia, public domain.

219. See The Mikhaelis Testimonies - These testimonies establish a familiar connection between the Skowronek banking family of Warsaw and the Rothschild banking family of Berlin. Shoshana Mikhaelis was a sister-in-law of Fritz Rothschild, a Berlin banker, and daughter of Aharon Gestern, merchant from Warsaw. Szmul Wigdor Gestern[1.298] was married to Bajla Hinda Skowronek[1.297] daughter of Szlama Skowronek, banker from Warsaw[1.15]. It should be noted that there are at the present time some discrepancies in the testimonies of Shoshana Gestern - Mikhaelis, which make it difficult to discern the exact facts. For example, she cites Lili, her daughter as born before the reported birth date of her father. There are several possible explanations for this, including transcription errors or the fact that one of her parents might have had another marriage that we are unaware of. However, there is a hint that the surname Mikhaelis might offer a clue: see This particular tree does not clear the issue per se, but shows that surnames such as Behrens, Israel and Halberstadt were connected to Helft, which is one of the confusing surnames that appear on the Mikhaelis testimonies. So despite any probable errors, there is in fact, a connection.

220. See New World Order (conspiracy theory) - Wikipedia, ret Mar 13 2014.

221. See David Icke - Wikipedia.

- 221.1 - "Icke argues that humanity was created by a network of secret societies run by an ancient race of interbreeding bloodlines from the Middle and Near East, originally extraterrestrial. Icke calls them the 'Babylonian Brotherhood.' The Brotherhood is mostly male. Their children are raised from an early age to understand the mission; those who fail to understand it are pushed aside. The spread of the reptilian bloodline encompasses what Norman Simms calls an 'odd and ill-matched' group of people, extending to 43 American presidents, three British and two Canadian prime ministers, various Sumerian kings and Egyptian pharaohs, and a small number of celebrities including Bob Hope. Key Brotherhood bloodlines are the Rockefellers, the Rothschilds, various European royal and aristocratic families, the establishment families of the Eastern United States, and the British House of Windsor. Icke identified the Queen Mother in 2001 as 'seriously reptilian.'

The Illuminati, Round Table, Council on Foreign Relations, Chatham House, the Trilateral Commission, the Bilderberg Group, the International Monetary Fund and the United Nations, are all Brotherhood created and controlled, as are the media, military, CIA, Mossad, science, religion and the Internet, with witting or unwitting support from the London School of Economics. At the apex of the Brotherhood stands the 'Global Elite,' identified throughout history as the Illuminati, and at the top of the Global Elite stand the 'Prison Wardens.' The goal of the Brotherhood - their 'Great Work of Ages' - is world domination and a micro-chipped population.", ret Mar 13 2014

- 221.2 - "Icke introduced the reptoid hypothesis in The Biggest Secret (1999), which identified the Brotherhood as descendants of reptilians from the constellation Draco, who walk on two legs and appear human, and who live in tunnels and caverns inside the earth. He argues that the reptilians are the race of gods known as the Anunnaki in the Babylonian creation myth, Enûma Elis.[40] According to Barkun, Icke's idea of "inner-earth reptilians" is not new, though he has done more than most to expand it."

- 221.3 - "In his 2001 documentary about Icke, Jon Ronson cited this cartoon, "Rothschild" (1898), by Charles Léandre, arguing that Jews have long been depicted as lizard-like creatures out to control the world. See [222]

222. See File:Antisemiticroths.jpg - "1898 cartoon showing Rothschild with the world in his hands", Wikipedia, public domain, ret Mar 13 2014. See [221.3]

223. See The Czerkewitz Testimonies - These testimonies, written bt Dwojra Czerjketwitz, neé Klepfisz, describe the fate of her immediate family by that as well as other names.

224. See File:Michal Klepfisz.JPG - Ret 27 Mar 2014. Wikipedia, public domain.

225. See The Skowronek - Krakowski Testimonies - Shoshana Skowronek - Krakowski wrote a number of testimonies regarding relatives named Skowronek, Krakowski, Russak, Auerbach and Justman.

226. See File:Gomulka speech.jpg - "Wladyslaw Gomulka addresses hundreds of thousand of people in Warsaw on 24 October 1956. At the height of his popularity, he appealed for an end to demonstrations and return to work. 'United with the working class and the nation', he concluded, 'the Party will lead Poland along a new way of socialism.' Gomulka's popularity at that time probably equalled that of Józef Pilsudski's in 1920 and Lech Walesa in 1980; but disillusionment would soon follow.", Wikipedia, public domain, ret 7 Apr 2014.

227. See File:Eybeschuetz.jpg - "Postumer Kupferstich von Jonathan Eybeschütz (1690-1767) - Ende 18. Jh. -", Wikipedia, public domain, ret 9 Apr 2014.

228. See

- 228.1. SeeSurnames of Rabbinical Families

229. See The Kamieni Testimonies - These testimonies describe the fate of members of related members of the Skowronek family in the Lublin area, under the name Skowronek and Kamieni (Kamienny,) this particular branch of the family is related to the Hollander rabbis and to Szerman, Pachiarski and Skowronek relatives living in Belgium.

230. See Genealogy of the Rothschild family

231. See Davidic Dynasty - Ret 17 May 2014.

232. See File:Felix-Adler-Hine.jpeg - "Description English: Dr. Felix Adler, Chairman, National Child Labor Comittee. Attribution to Hine based on provenance. In album: Miscellaneous. Hine no. 3479. No date or location recorded on caption card; 1913 estimate based on captions for photos with neighboring numbers. Date ca. 1913? Source Library of Congress, Prints & Photographs Division, LC-DIG-nclc-04844 (color digital file from b&w original print), archival TIFF version (54 MB), cropped and converted to JPEG with the GIMP 2.4.5, image quality 85. Author Lewis Wickes Hine (1874–1940) Permission (Reusing this file) No known restriction on publication. - This image is available from the United States Library of Congress's Prints and Photographs division under the digital ID nclc.04844. This tag does not indicate the copyright status of the attached work. A normal copyright tag is still required. See Commons:Licensing for more information. - This is a photograph from the National Child Labor Committee collection at the Library of Congress. According to the library, there are no restrictions of any kind on the use of these photos. - Public domain - This media file is in the public domain in the United States. This applies to U.S. works where the copyright has expired, often because its first publication occurred prior to January 1, 1923. See this page for further explanation. - This image might not be in the public domain outside of the United States; this especially applies in the countries and areas that do not apply the rule of the shorter term for US works, such as Canada, Mainland China (not Hong Kong or Macao), Germany, Mexico, and Switzerland. The creator and year of publication are essential information and must s be provided. See Wikipedia:Public domain and Wikipedia:Copyrights for more details." - Ret 17 May 2014.

233. See File:Yosef Dov Halevi Soloveychik 1a.jpg - Wikipedia, public domain. Ret 23 May 2014.

234. See - The Jewish contribution to the cultural, scientific, and technological evolution of civilization.

235. See A History of the Inquisition of Spain - The Library of Iberian Resources Online. A History of the Inquisition of Spain, Volume 1, Henry Charles Lea, Book 1: Origin and Establishment. Chapter 3: The Jews and the Conversos.

- 235.1 P3.

- 235.2 P8, 9 (SIC).

- 235.3 P31.

236. See Journal of Spanish, Portuguese and Italian Crypto Jews - Vol1, Spring 2009, ISSN 1943-8214

- 236.1 P18. - Jews, Catholics, and Converts: Reassessing the Resilience of Convivencia in Fifteenth Century Plasencia, Spain - Roger Louis Martínez, PhD. Note that the document linked is an excerpt of the original publication, in which Dr. Martínez's paper had been published starting at page 95.

- 236.2 P13. - Note: 104 in the original, unabridged publication.

- 236.3 P13. - (104).

237. See Ransom Center Guidelines - Safe Handling of Medieval and Early Modern Manuscripts - University of Texas, ret. July 2014. N.A.: Indeed, while not all documents related to the Skowronek family are as old as medieval ones, the same principles and handling techniques, broadly speaking, apply. Some documents may be only a hundred years old at this point, but their state of preservation due to - for example - the effects of two world wars and decades-long neglect during the communist era have left some records in a rather bad shape. Also, the use of low-quality materials such as paper and ink, particularly in the Soviet Union during pre-1950 times and in Europe in general during wartime turn period forms and papers into brittle documents that require very careful handling. In some cases, ink has almost completely disappeared after a couple of decades.

238. See Emigrants and Society: Extremadura and America in the Sixteenth Century - The Library of Iberian Resources Online. Local Society in Northern Extremadura, Chapter 1. Ida Altman.

- 238.1 P19.

239. See File:DPAG 2009 Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy.jpg - Ret. from Wikipedia on 27 Oct 2014. Public domain.

240. See Alemannia Judaica.

- 240.1 See Colmar / Kolmar (Dep. Haut-Rhin / Alsace / Oberelsass) Jüdische Geschichte / Synagogue / Synagoge "Hilde Babad - Naphtalie Schoenberg. Verlobte. Frankfurt am Main, Uhlandstraße 36 - Colmar (Elsass). Ret. 28 Nov 2014 Schewat 5696 - Februar 1936"

- 240.2 See Colmar / Kolmar (Dep. Haut-Rhin / Alsace / Oberelsass) Jüdische Geschichte / Synagogue / Synagoge "Zu einzelnen Personen aus der Gemeinde Über Minna (Minie) geb. Schönberg (1864-1929), Mutter der Marx Brothers". Ret. 28 Nov 2014.

241. See The Marx Brothers - Parents "On the marriage certificate of the Marx Brothers' parents (which is full of spelling mistakes made by the official) the groom is named Samuel Marks, but he signs his name Simon(3) Marx. He is listed as being 24 years old and a tailor, born in Alsace, France. His father's name is given as Mark Marks and his mother's first name as Honne (Hanna). His wife is registered as Mine Schonberg, 20 years old, and she signs Minnie Schonberg.", ret. 28 Nov 2014

242. See Les Marx, une famille alsacienne et américaine, par Maria Petringa. Ret 28 Nov 2014.

- 242.1 See La famille paternelle des Marx Brothers, par Pierre Kogan. Ret 28 Nov 2014.

243. See Ludwig Bamberger - Wikipedia, ret 2 Dec 2014.

244. See File:Ludwig Bamberger.jpg - Wikipedia, public domain. Ret 3 Dec 2014.

245. See J. Robert Oppenheimer ("father of the atomic bomb") - Son of Julius and Ella Oppenheimer. Ret 19 DEc 2014.

246. See David Cronenberg "Born in Toronto, Canada, Cronenberg is the son of Esther (née Sumberg), a musician, and Milton Cronenberg, a writer and editor. He was raised in a 'middle-class progressive Jewish family'. His father was born in Baltimore, Maryland, and his mother was born in Toronto; all of his grandparents were from Lithuania", ret 11 Feb 2015.

247. See File:Kronenberg Leopold.jpg - Wikipedia, public domain. Ret 11 Feb 2015. Public domain.

248. See Jewish Quotes - Ret. 24 Feb 2015.

249. See Jewish Quotes and Quotes about Jews - Ret. 24 Feb 2015.

250. See Jewish Quotations - Ret. 24 Feb 2015.

251. Witold Wrzosinski, genealogist from Warsaw, confirmed the relationship between Hena and Józef Skowronek as brother an sister. He also studied in detail the Skowronek banking family, finding several surviving relatives around the world. See his site and contact information at

252. See Karl Schwarzschild - Ret. 29 May 2015, Wikipedia, public domain.

253. See Manfred von Richthofen - Ret. 23 Jun 2015, Wikipedia, public domain.

254. See File:Bundesarchiv Bild 183-2004-0430-501, Jagdstaffel 11, Manfred v. Richthofen.jpg - Ret. 23 Jun 2015, Wikipedia, original picture from Bundesarchiv, Bild 183-2004-0430-501 / CC-BY-SA, public domain.

255. See Familienverband Von Richthofen - Ret. 25 Jun 2015.

256. See File:Fundación de Córdoba, Argentina.jpg - "Óleo del pintor croata Petar Svjetlosak 'La fundación de Córdoba' que realizó alrededor de 1950, con el asesoramiento histórico del R. P. Pedro Grenón y del Dr. Carlos Luque Colombres por entonces decano de la facultad de Filosofía de Córdoba. Se encuentra en el museo Obispo Fray José Antonio de San Alberto dentro del Instituto de las Hermanas de Santa Teresa de Jesús.", ret. 5 Aug 2015, Wikipedia, public domain.

257. See Datei:Bacharach-Merian.jpg - "Dieses Werk ist gemeinfrei, weil seine urheberrechtliche Schutzfrist abgelaufen ist. Dies gilt für das Herkunftsland des Werks und alle weiteren Staaten mit einer gesetzlichen Schutzfrist von 100 oder weniger Jahren nach dem Tod des Urhebers.", ret Dec 27 2015, Wikipedia, public domain.

258. See Early History of the Rabbinical Weil Family - Rav-SIG, by Werner L. Frank.

259. See Moses Montefiore - Wikipedia article.

260. See Can We Prove Descend From King David? - RavSIG - Online Journal. Ret. Dec 28, 2016.

260.1 - Chaia - Charlap: "Yahia is Arabic for Chiya, which is Aramaic for Chaim. The Ibn-Yahia family derived the name from Chiya al-Daudi. 'Ibn Yahia' means 'descendant of Yahia' (or Chiya); 'al-Daudi' means 'the Davidic' (descendant). We recall that Chiya al-Daudi, who died in Castile in 1154, was a descendant of the Babylonian-Persian-Iraqi Exilarchs...

Some of that is reported by Gedaliah ibn Yahia (1515-1587) in Shalshelet Ha-Kabbalah (The Chain of Tradition) (Venice, 1587) and by Eliakim Carmoly in Divrei Ha-Yamim li-Bnei Yahia (History of the Yahia Family) (Frankfurt am Main, 1850). Gedaliah ibn Yahia goes back to about 1055 CE to Yahia ibn Yaish, apparently the founder of the family. Carmoly does not go earlier than about 1200, the time of Nassi Don Yahia. Some of the later descendants changed their name from Don Yahia to Donkhin.

In one of the above articles, Rabbi Benzion Don Yahia Donkhin (ca.1927) reports that he saw two genealogical tables... "

260.2 - Chaia - Charlap: "About 1550, a Polish branch appears with Eliezer Charlap. 'Charlap' is an acronym with several versions. According to one, it derives from 'Chiya Rosh Le-Goley Portugal' (Chiya, head of the exiles from Portugal). Another one is 'Chiya Rosh Le-Goley Polin' (Chiya, head of exiles to Poland, or Chiya, the first of the emigrants to Poland). Still another is 'Chiya Rosh Le-Galil Polin' (Chiya, the head of the region of Poland). There are explanations for each of the versions, but since proof of descent is the issue at hand, these interpretations are omitted.

The story goes that a Chiya came from Iraq to Poland about 1020 after the martyrdom of his father. The above list shows a gap of about 500 years until the reported appearance of the first Charlap, Eliezer ben David (born 1550). The last Charlap on this list is R. Eliezer Zvi Charlap (born about 1780-90). As we can see, the Charlaps are not descendants of the Yahias, but of an early Babylonian-Iraqi branch.".

To the best of our knowledge, we have given credit wherever it is due in the appropriate manner; please contact us to make amends or corrections if you feel that we should clarify any credit or copyright information. Also, visit the links for more information or contact the author. For more credits and info related to images and sources, please visit the corresponding links.

Auth: P. Edronkin.
Royalty III, Pablo Edronkin.

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